Uz knjigu „Saznanje, tolerancija, vera“, („3M Makarije, Podgorica, 2014) , prof. dr Dragana Jakovljevića
Autor: Mr Nebojša Banović, saradnik u nastavi na Filozofskom fakultetu, Univerziteta Crne Gore
Objavljivanjem knjige „Saznanje, tolerancija, vera“ profesora etike i teorije saznanja Univerziteta Crne Gore, dr Dragana Jakovljevića postaje koliko-toliko izvjesnije da su stvaralačka pregnuća u maniru mjerodavnih evropskih intelektualaca moguća i na našim prostorima koji su uprkos dosegnutim pomacima još uvijek u dobroj mjeri oličenje duhovne skromnosti, a ne rijetko i izvjesne stigmatizovanosti. S tim u vezi, neće biti na odmet istaći da je autor kako u svojim ranijim radovima, a tako i u ovom, ostao dosljedan sljedbenik tzv. transdisciplinarnog mišljenja, kao i kritičkog racionalizma, koje smjera ka nadvladavanju često nepremostivih diferencija između filozofije i nauke. Istovremeno, knjiga obiluje i prilično evidentnim multidsiciplinarnim karakterom o čemu svjedoči njena sadržina ophrvena esejima iz domena teorije saznanja, biologije, metodologije, etike, teologije, filozofije prava, teorije i sociologije religije i kulture.
Author: Lu Kaigang (Shi Quan), Council Member of View Stone Association of China; Standing Director of View Stone Association of Jiangsu Province.
The sense of color is the most popular form of esthetics.—Marx
All that is alive tends toward color. ---Goethe
Abstract: Nature is a beautiful and extremely colorful world. Therefore, the appreciation of colors has always been an important part of appreciating beauty. There is no exception when it comes to enjoying the arts and beauty of stones. All objects have their unique and dazzling colors. This is especially true when we observe rain flower pebbles as we consider them “queen of all stones”. They have remarkable textures and colors which make them a natural visual banquet. While admiring the beauty of rain flower pebbles, we automatically appreciate the beauty of nature. This is much different from evaluating man-made art by dividing the types of pieces into diverse conceptions or schools of thought. In appreciating the rain flower pebbles, collectors and exhibitions categorize them according to their colors, texture and form. Rain flower pebbles aren’t large; however, their colors and styles are repetitive.
Author: Marina P. Bonser, PhD, Founding Director "Global Thinking World" , A member of UNESCO Open Educational Resources & US Partnership of Education for Sustainable Development
This theory explains why and how we recognize and enjoy the beauty of this world
Copyright © 2012 Marina P. Bonser, Ph.D.
This theory is an example of a united worldview which integrates oriental and occidental, traditional and modern views, and also combines scientific, spiritual, and artistic approaches of understanding the world. Our world of substance and energy is considered as a “symphony” of different varieties of vibrations. Our interaction with the world’s vibrations is a sequence of resonances with similar patterns in vibrations of our emotions and/or thoughts. Process of exploration of the world, and our life experience in general is sequences of our “clicks” and “clashes” with the objects and the subjects of our interactions. Regular unhealthy vibrations of the man-made world can affect our bio-vibrations and cause health problems. Environmental sustainability practitioners should take his issue into account.
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According to ancient wisdom in oriental religions (Maya, Buddhism, Tao, etc.) the entire world is just a complex “symphony” of vibrations, and every being in our world is a vibration. There are different guided imagery techniques in different cultures in order to help people to get their own vibrations in tune with the vibrations of the God (or universal source).
Contemporary Science confirms that a substance, a fabric of the world, is just very dense energy. Einstein’s relation between mass and energy, the Wave-Corpuscle Duality theory gave us an approach of understanding the world as a “spider web of energy knots”, where “knots” are material objects which are interacting and networking with each other via different types of “energy waves” (vibrations).
Material objects, comparatively self-sufficient systems of “energy knots” with developed patterns of interactions also interact and network with other similar systems. Those networks can be considered as larger more complex systems with their interactions with other larger complex systems, and so on in infinitely large universe. Each “energy knot” can be also considered as a system with interactions between smaller objects, and those objects in their turn can be considered as smaller systems, and so on towards infinitely small universe. Every system, every “knot of energy” can be considered as a tool for broadcasting and/or receiving energy waves (vibrations) which carry the information about a broadcaster. A sun and other stars are broadcasting light and heat which is received by beings and get converted into other kinds of energy in their inner systems. Photosynthesis is one of the most amazing miracles of converting energy of light into mass. When a musical instrument broadcasts sound waves we are able to receive them via our “ear tool” and resonate with them because they touch our “soul strings”. Light and sound are just more obvious examples of energy waves which are basically tools for the information exchange between objects. All beings pass on to each other peace, love, anger, and other types and combinations of “emotional waves”. So whoever is able to receive those vibrations would know information of characteristics and feelings of their broadcaster. Human beings also have the privilege of using sound waves and words for more complex communication. Human civilization built up varieties of ways of interpersonal and mass media communication upon this wonderful ability. People keep inventing different tools for recording and preserving for a longer time some of the vibrations which represent parts of our life; first come pictures and books, then cameras, TV, videos, computers, etc.
However, in the way man-made world develops we don't need that much our natural ability to exchange the information via bio-vibrations with other living beings, and that’s why lost a great deal of it. There are lots of facts of existence of other types of energetic waves for interactions which are not explored by science yet. For instance, deeply emotionally close people somehow know of serious trouble of each other without any known opportunities of communication. Things and places can reflect bio-vibrations of beings around them just like moon reflects solar light. Other beings who are able to receive those reflected bio-vibrations would get the information about broadcasters which is carried by waves of their bio-vibrations. So things and places can be in a communication chain between beings. How does it work? One system should be designed for broadcasting, like a guitar with strings, and the other system, a human, should have a similarly designed pattern of “soul strings” to resonate with those sound waves, just like a key can open a certain lock. Basically a guitar like any other musical instrument is a tool for getting in tune with the “soul strings” of a musician to “soul strings” of listeners. The guitar as a system has a pattern in its design which “clicks”, or resonates with a similar pattern in the design of “human tool kits” for broadcasting and receiving emotional vibrations of composers, performers, and listeners. That’s how people can pass on beauty they received getting in tune with patterns of natural beauty in the universe. Patterns "click" works in the similar way as a particular key opens a particular lock. The lock and the key must be "opposite" carriers of the same pattern.
It is interesting that oriental theories recognize 7 chakras, or energy centers in the human body, so a body can be considered as a “flute” for resonance, for tune up with 7 rainbow colors of light and 7 notes of sound in music. I wonder if our other ways of perception, taste, smell, and touch also can be broken down into 7 units on different levels, octaves, or they have different natural patterns? The human mind can hold 7+-2 units in its attention at the same time. We use our spectrum of perception and cognition abilities for resonating with different types of waves in the world. We place them in our mind filling up our four dimensional space-time model of the world.
Why is it so breath-taking looking at a snowflake, a flower, or a great nature scene? A pattern of natural beauty in the world resonates with some pattern of design of our bio-system as a human being. The universe is touching our “soul strings”. Any kind of art is a human reflected beauty in the universe, or expression of missing connection with that beauty. When you look at the picture, artist work leads your attention from one thing to another, making a sequence of resonances with different patterns in your soul, just like you are listening to a symphony. If we consider a life as a flow of a sequence of vibrations, looking at art or listening to music is a sequence of resonances with patterns in tune with the recipient’s life flow. Such a “symphony” can be a combination of different types of world reflection, cognition and interaction, for instance a movie, a theater performance, or a book with great thoughts or feelings. Sometimes, a person needs to team up with other people and/or objects and be a part of a system in order to be able to “click” into a certain pattern of a beauty in the universe, for example a concert, a theater play, or a sport game. People like to watch or just be around a candle light, a campfire, a waterfall or fountain because constantly moving flow of light or water vibes resonates with the flow of their own bio-vibes, harmonize and energize them.
So we are and the entire world is a complex multilevel vibration. While we are alive we are constantly broadcasting complex “symphonies” of vibrations. Others can get in tune and receive them if they have similar patterns in their systems’ designs. Plants, rocks, animals, insects, people, and all other beings all the time are generating and broadcasting their own “waves” during their lives. Ecosystems in natural environments, human made cities, and then continents, the whole planet, stars and galaxies are constantly broadcasting “symphonies” of different types of energy waves carrying information for those who are ready to get in tune with them, which means they have similar patterns in their systems. In my Nature Connection Workshops, guided imagery gets people’s minds, emotions, and then body energy vibrations in tune with nature vibrations, energetically connects entire person with a particular natural environment, and then to the entire universe. It brings incredible joy, peace and healing energy from the infinite universal source of life. People who love to go to the wilderness know the difference between what they feel in the wild forest compared to their feelings from the same kind grove of trees in some city park.
The sciences help us to understand of how different fields of energy waves like electromagnetic, gravity, etc. interact with objects and the world. Understanding is basically a resonance with a pattern of thinking which is already developed in our minds, or creating a new pattern for resonance if there is a potential. The quality of this communication also depends upon our inner and outer potential to resonate with those waves. This is another way to resonate with the beauty of the world from a different approach of world perception than arts. Thinking is a secondary level of reflection of the world which uses first perception abilities like vision, hearing, etc. The understanding of a new experience that is similar to a previous experience is a “clicks” with a certain pattern in thinking structure which allow for understanding of something new in addition to that previous experience. Than a person activates additions to existing patterns in thinking structure, and “clicks” with the object/subject of interaction via new created pattern. It works exactly like assembling a puzzle. Already built patterns are providing you with the ideas of their possible extensions.That’s how a person develops thinking abilities, no matter if she/he learns something which is already known by others, or has an insight of something that no one knew before. From this point of view systems thinking structure is a system itself, and Global Systems Thinking structure tends to integrate all types of thinking into a most inclusive possible system for a particular person at a particular period of life in order to build the best of person’s abilities working worldview for solving global problems. My Global Thinking Development Course is designed especially for that.
There are two types of interaction, positive and negative. Positive ones “click”, or “resonate” with our similar patterns and open us up for a feeling of a harmony, peace and balance with the universe. Negative ones “clash” us on differences in patterns, and open us to discomfort which motivates us to search for harmony opportunities. “Clashes” can be harmful for our patterns of design in forcing them to “stretch out” or “shrink” in order to be similar to them and “click”. So there are choices for reaching a new harmony. The first choice would be modifying old pattern in order to “click” with the object of interaction. The second choice is finding a new understanding on the base of old one; this will build a new addition to one’s old pattern in order to “click” with this object. The third and the fourth choice is changing the object of interaction in one of those two ways. A combination of those options in a sequence of steps can be a good way for reaching harmonic balance also. Which way would be the best for reaching harmony depends on characteristics of both objects of interaction and on the conditions of interaction. First way is reasonable if it is only a little adjustment of recipient system is needed which is not harmful for that system. The second one is reasonable when disharmony bothers a recipient more. The third way is encouraging the object to change what is harmful for a recipient in interaction. The fourth way is forcing the object to change if this interaction really destroys a recipient, and there is no way to avoid it. These are options, for instance, on how to deal with traffic noise near your home, or how to deal with your next door neighbor who loves to broadcast music loud enough to bother you.
“Clashes” can be bad for healthy harmonic systems, and can be good for unhealthy unbalanced systems which need to be shaken, repaired, or destroyed in order to make room for starting over a new healthier balance or a new system. For example, people on loud motorcycles can destroy natural peace and silence and get their neighbors upset, but in their point of view they find joy, power, harmony and balance in shaking up their world which they are not satisfied with. “Clicks”, besides dwelling on positive harmony and peace, can be harmful for a system in the long run, if they make it get stuck and degenerate because that system is not open to new information which it needs in order to stay up-to-date and resonate with changes in the outer world.
Growth or development is a process of transition from “clicks” to “clashes”, and from “clashes” to “clicks”. “Eureka” is a “click”, a resonance with a new pattern, and since a new pattern is discovered, it will be used over and over again in different combinations with old patterns for other similar “clicks” in organizing a new picture of the world. However, at some point the number of “clashes” in attempts to understand new things in the world will grow to a disharmony and motivate a person to look for a new pattern, a new balance, a new “click”.
The development of civilization brought to humanity many positive things. At some point people discovered that resources and waste opportunities are limited, and realize the necessity of sustainable living. In the modern world people do care about keeping our environment healthy but no one has paid serious attention yet to the disharmonious vibrations in our environments created by our civilization. Every day in our life we cannot avoid interaction with vibrations which are much stronger than our biological waves (which our body, mind, and spirit produces and broadcasts). Every day we have to put ourselves in the environment which breaks and eventually destroys our natural patterns of our biological systems. Constant traffic noise on the highways or busy roads, chain sawing on construction sites, lawn mowing or snow blowing in residential neighborhoods and business districts, motor boats on recreation sites, shooting in a wilderness nearby nature trails, heater or air conditioner noise in your home can force your patterns to get into resonance with those noises. This regular interaction with your naturally harmonic bio-vibes can make your systems function in a wrong way which make you feel tired often and eventually can develop different health disorders. Loud sounds are only an example. It has not been enough time yet to explore how “symphonies” of man-made vibrations from cell phone towers and Wi-Fi sources affect human health by interacting with our bio-vibes.
I am not encouraging anyone to stop using man-made tools that make loud noise in order to prevent our potential health problems. Humanity cannot go backwards in civilization’s development. However if we are aware of this problem we can begin develop proper strategies of how to deal with this problem and gradually figure out ways of healthy sustainable life. Environmental sustainability practitioners should take his issue into account.
Наратолошке паралеле између новеле Павиљон број 6 Антона Павловича Чехова и филма Павиљон VI Лућијана Пинтилијеа
Аутор: Немања Глинтић, докторанд, стални члан редакције "Филозофских погледа"
Harbin Normal University, China, Serbian Language Lecturer
(Кључне речи: егзил, репресија, адаптација, интермедијски пренос, сижејна редукција, инверзија, структура, трансгресија)
УВОД – У ИЗГНАНСТВУ
У мартовском издању публикације Румунског културног института у Њујорку, из 2012. године, у потпуности посвећеном Лућијану Пинтилијеу, а поводом прве америчке свеобухватне ретроспективе овог румунског редитеља, у интервјуу под називом „Lucian Pintilie: I close my eyes and see“ који је исте године с њим водио Михаи Ћирилов, Пинтилије, између осталог, говори о динамици редефинисања уметничког израза као нужнoj последици двадесетогодишњег стваралачког егзила на који га је осудила репресивна влада Николаја Чаушеског и субверзивном деловању као могућој употребној вредности адаптације литерарног дела. С тим у вези, Пинтилије најављује филмску адаптацију Чеховљевог „Галеба“, чија га је радикална позоришна адаптација претходно прославила у Француској и Америци, и са пуно самопоуздања предлаже наслов „Чехов и Сахалин“, најављујући још радикалнију адаптацију, чији наратив ће у великој мери бити обликован наводним мотивима Чеховљевог добровољног егзила на острво Сахалин и његовим наводним сахалинским искуством. На основу овога закључујемо не само да је Пинтилије био свестан значаја и актуелности сахалинске фазе Антона Павловича Чехова или важности аутономног уметничког израза у процесу адаптације, већ и у коликој мери је Пинтилијеова фасцинираност Чеховим остала жива и истрајна. Чеховљево дело је најприсутнији класични литерарни предложак у Пинтилијеовом стваралаштву, који редитељ, у зависности од медија који користи у процесу адаптације (позориште, опера, филм), прекодира у нов систем знакова и нову реалност, али у име старе, универзалне истине. Иако румунски редитељ о Чехову превасходно размишља из позиције уметника азиланта, руски писац егзистира и на спољашњим и на унутрашњим рубовима Пинтилијеовог стваралачког егзила. Осим „Галеба“ и „Три сестре“, вредно је поменути и позоришну адаптацију драме „Вишњик“ у румунској продукцији и најављену филмску адаптацију „Галеба“. Међутим, постоји једно Пинтилијеово дело у целости базирано на Чехову, а чији статус je неразјашњен, а судбина заборављен – случај.
 „I will shoot a film based on The Seagull by Chekhov, to explain how I understand adaptation. […] Do you also want a title for it? Chekhov and Sakhalin. Do you want to know the story? To escape the ennui emanating from the women in love with him, Chekhov escapes to the island of Sakhalin, and there he tells the story of an execution he never witnessed.“ у: Mihai Chirilov „Lician Pintilie: I close my eyes and see“, Romanian Cultural Institute New York: Lucian Pintilie, March 1-12, 2012, стр. 10; веб извор: http://issuu.com/rciny/docs/lucian_pintilie_2012/12
Autor: Spomenka Martić, filozof, stalni član redakcije "Filozofskih pogleda"
SAŽETAK: Utvrđivanje osnovnih veza između fenomenologije i potencijalnogsustavakoji ona možda nudi nije namjerno iznuđivanje, uglavnom zbog transparentne Husserlove borbe protiv bilo kojeg dovršenog sustava istine, ali nije nemoguće, ako se ima u vidu uzornost njegove misli prema znanstvenosti i njezinoj biti. Filozofska osnova znanosti ne čini ih oslobođenima od iste, već ih obavezuje da filozofiju uvaže u ulozi čuvara vrijednosti čovječnosti kakvom ih nalazi od prapočetaka. Ta opća subjektivnost(Allsubjektivitat), kao predmet filozofskih sukoba, glavni je stup fenomenološkog odnosa, te će se u ovom radu pokušati govoriti o prirodi njezine strukture kakvom ju je vidio E. Husserl. Posljedice kojeće njegovo razmišljanje imati na povijest pojma duha filozofije bit će prikazane snaglaskom na transcendentalnu logiku i njezine aktualne mogućnosti.
KLJUČNE RIJEČI: E.Husserl, fenomenologija, transcendentalnost, kriteriji, stvari, logika, filozofija, znanost, povijest.
Author: William Bauser, Professor of Philosophy - Dean College Franklin USA (1990-2006), Member of the Board of Directors - Stop Organ Trafficking NOw Lovettsville, USA
There is today an anti—reason attack upon not lonely right and wrong, human dignity and enlightenment, but also an attack upon a sustainable peace that an inquiry into liberal arts and of science pursue. This attack upon the development of a sustainable peace is based upon a Personalism belief as an interpretation of what constitutes a narrative of a life and death war through a social political scientism.
Istvan Kiraly argues in his text “Death and History” that through the utilization of the concept of written symbols as a means for mortal man to think in his self-interest of the factuality of the interpretation meaning of the concept of death without having recourse to speech acts. The act of transcending the fact of mortality by emotionally controlling the fact of death as an interpretation enables mortal man to perform his chosen living as it is mortal man’s job to succeed as a successful actor of a self-interest desire to be existentially and ontologically free from any limitations of totalitarianism and individualism.
Istvan Kiraly is an Associate Professor at Babes-Bolyai University, Romania. He is situated in the Department of Hungarian Philosophy were he teachers Propaedeutics, Ontology, Metaphysics and Applied Philosophy. He is a former chief editor of Philobiblon which is the Transylvanian Journal of Multidiscipline Research in Humanities. Professor Kiraly has published several works relating to his interest in death, freedom, Philosophy of history and time.
Professor Kirlay’s inquiry into “death and History” is a Hermeneutic exegesis regarding an interpretation of a philosophy of history through a discussion with Martin Heidegger and Thomas Hobbes and others. Through the usage of heritage and language interpretation and semantics, Professor kirlay discusses how mortal man has a history as an existential and ontological being and then applies this history to the issue of terrorism.
Professor Kirlay’s text is an excellent excursion into the assigning meaning to the concepts of heritage and language interpretation and semantics through the application of the Ramus method of discussion. As such, there is a tangible correspondence in discourse between nature and rhetoric as an ideographic approach to interpretation. Even though this is an investigation into one’s place in the world as a mortal being, the interpretation is a characterization of what one thinks is a fact without existential import.
Consequently, “Death and History” is a read that addresses the issue of one’s place in the world and how to characterize emotional issues as they depict intentional objects of the mind. Yet, because these objects of the mind do not have existential import, the inquiry leaves open the possibility of maintaining a sustainable peace.
Author: Valentine Oyedipe, Member of the Carnegie Council for International Affairs Global Ethics Network
The daunting thoughts that have occupied the minds of humanity over the Centuries have been the direction of human civilization and its compatibility with ethical moral standards in relation to the advancement of science and technology. The paper examines the trends in science and technological advancement from its earliest time to its present dispensation; its positive and negative impacts on humanity vis a vis inventions and discoveries that have made life more comfortable and meaningful to humanity; the unbridled passion and gratification of sensual pleasure; the escalating Wars with sophisticated Arms and weaponry that have de-humanized humankind sequel to the sacrilege of human dignity and sanctity; the anthropogenic disasters that are offshoots of humankind’s struggles to conquer nature and master his environment etc. The paper further analyses qualitatively and quantitatively the Global Peace Index on some selected indicators from which inferences are made. The paper concludes that: technology of modern civilization is moving to stage where probably artificial intelligence will undo man in all sphere of life and the emergent of first cloned man; technology of modern civilization is a blessing to humanity and compatible with morality; the status of global peace has fairly improved. Although, with much disasters and pressures. The paper suggests moral revolution and assimilation of culture of Peace, mutual respect for one another, respect for the rule of law and respect for human dignity and sanctity for better and constructive utilization of scientific and technological knowledge in the 21st Century.
Key words: Advanced Technology, Modern Civilization, Global Peace, Ethics
Other papers of this author. DEMOCRACY AND VIOLENCE AGAINST THE NIGERIAN CHILD: IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC MORALITY, LEGAL FRAMEWORK AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Integration of philosophical worldviews is an important part of contemporary world development. The principle of relativity of any worldview determines limits for its “working zone”. Finding basic common components, figuring classification models, taking into account different approaches and the world’s philosophical inheritance makes a strategy for building united worldviews.
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Author: Marina P. Bonser, PhD, Founding Director "Global Thinking World" , A member of UNESCO Open Educational Resources & US Partnership of Education for Sustainable Development
The 21st Century is the beginning of the New Era of integration of processes in the world, which appear in globalization and internationalization of cultures, technologies, businesses, and education. Modern world languages, religions, and philosophical views have also started to change toward integration to keep up with changes in life. Communication strategies of representatives of different groups are changing from fighting over their differences in views into building connections between them. Remember the legend of blind men arguing over the definition of an elephant? If instead of arguing they collaborated in analyzing and summarizing their views, they all would have enriched each other’s worldviews and eventually have come to the definition closest to the reality. Contemporary strategies of communication and team work can help any team in the process of integration of their worldviews.
Imagine different groups of people at the different viewpoints in the same valley. They all will agree on the view of the sun, clouds, and sky, and they all feel the same gravity. They all will see creeks, lakes, mountains, trees, and meadows but will disagree on their locations and sizes in their sceneries. Flora and fauna in one place might be partly or completely different for different groups which are located near the lake, in the forest, on the slope of the hill, or on the top of the mountain. Communication and collaboration is the way they all can have the whole picture of the valley closest to the reality. At the next step in broadening and deepening their worldview they will learn to understand people in different valleys who see different lakes, mountains, and hills, and then understand people who see different landscapes like oceans and seas, cities, and even different views of the sun in the sky, different environments, different cultures, and so on, up to different gravities. This is a great model for the understanding of differences in philosophical views and the principle of their relativity which means understanding that any worldview is relative and has a “working zone”, a limited conditions where it works well.
Different philosophical schools can also find their “location” in the process of their integration by analyzing their “worldview landscapes” in comparison to others, finding common basic components, or “bricks” of their different “buildings”. Discovery of electrons and protons was a base for understanding the nature of chemical elements and their relations in the periodic table. Finding basic common components in worldviews (paradigms) will help organize them in a system similar to Mendeleev’s Periodic Table of Elements where each worldview will have a certain place. Perhaps it is also possible to assemble a biological map of all types of beings which organizes perfectly all types and families based on deeper level structures like DNA information. We don’t know yet if it is possible to find principles for assembling a Meta philosophical Map of Worldviews in only one way just like the Periodic Table of the elements, but it is worth a try to look for united worldview approaches, not just for building a better model of the world but for increasing understanding and peace in the entirety of humanity. Any united worldview might integrate oriental and occidental, traditional and modern views, also combining scientific and artistic approaches of understanding the world. In different united worldviews, types and families of worldviews can be organized by different principles. Every united worldview is also relative and limited just like a model of the valley landscape built by different viewers from different points of the valley might not work even for another valley and definitely not for completely different environments.
A strategy for building a united worldview:
1. Finding a common base everyone agrees on;
2. Overseeing the whole picture of connections between considered worldviews and figuring classification options of differences by a degree and a type of difference.
3. Exploring how figured classification works for assembling and placing new worldviews.
A core question of any worldview is existence of a source of life/world. In searching for a united worldview, it will be useful to find a “common denominator” in a definition of religion which would include all possible answers to this question.
Let’s define religion as an organized worldview based on belief in one or multiple sources of the world’s creation and evolution, with the description of the entire process of how the world evolves, and with a set of ethical rules and instructions on human life purpose and activities.
Such a definition will include religions which fit a traditional definition based on beliefs in god(s), and also all kinds of agnosticism. (Different kinds of denial of god’s existence are still beliefs; those of them which are organized in the worldview will fit into this definition of religion.)
Let’s consider relations between opposite “poles” of answers to the question of the existence of god. Global Systems Thinking gives an integrated approach on eternal debates over god’s existence. The more complex and sustainable any living system is, the higher its ability to reflect the world. Gaining this ability grows along with gaining a complexity of inner structure for a better ability to live. It grows along with arranging and adjusting outer connections for better integration with the world for survival which makes this development sustainable. If we consider god as the pure consciousness of the world, the more complex a living system is, the higher consciousness it has for a better world’s reflection, world’s model assemble. According to Hegel, god implements itself as a visible (perceptible) world, natural and cultural/social, and continues to grow consciousness in world’s systems until eventually the world will be consciously integrated, so the god will return to itself. According to Dissipative System’s Theory, systems have a self-organizational ability which can be considered as a form of consciousness. This goes well with the above mentioned Hegel’s concept, and also with the scientific Theory of World and Life Evolution.
Considering this old concept in a new systemic approach, god (pure consciousness, source of life and world) and its creation (any parts of the material world) are components of the “egg-chicken” model in terms of non-existence of an answer for which came first. They both help each other to develop. This process is perfectly illustrated by an image of Tao sign. So, someone’s answer to the question of god’s existence will depend on which point of the process of world evolution a person wants to consider as the beginning of everything. In other words, for someone who is near the sun or another star the world consists of light and heat. For someone in space the world is extremely dark and cold, and somewhere between those worlds there are conditions for life in sentient forms which can host consciousness – a reflection of universal source.
The understanding of relativity of any worldview and existence of limits of its “working zone” even on the level of core principles is the core principle in assembling united worldviews.
НОВА ГЕОГРАФИЈА ИДЕНТИТЕТА У ГРАФИЧКОЈ НОВЕЛИ ПЕРСЕПОЛИС МАРЂАН САТРАПИ
Аутор: Немања Глинтић, докторанд
Harbin Normal University, China, Serbian Language Lecturer
Представити пословично незавидну позиција жена у Ирану није био основни циљ писања Персеполиса. То постаје јасно већ у Уводу у ком ауторка Марђан Сатрапи каже да јој је писање овe графичкe новеле било важно, јер је желела да деконструише традиционалну стереотипну представу о својој земљи о којој се „говори углавном у вези са фундаментализмом, фанатизмом и тероризмом“1. Осим тога, Сатрапи се у интервјуима често обазире на то да је погрешно довођена у везу са феминизмом, и да себе превасходно види као хуманисткињу. С друге стране, питање рода и разлике је незаобилазно, јер је ауторка итекако свесна да је реч о проблему који, између осталих, и чини културни и верски идентитет земље у којој је рођена.
Иако је дело подложно полемици и критици са становишта бројних савремених књижевних теорија које се баве проблемом идентитета (нарочито се као плодно тле ова графичка новела може указати савременим имаголозима), као релевантно, тумачење се указује управо у кључу феминистичке књижевне критике, и то оног њеног модернијег крила које иде преко гинокритике и гинезе, а које се тиче локационе феминистичке критике и могућих дискурса нове географије идентитета унутар којих се Сопство конституише.
О овом приступу пише Сузан Стенфорд Фридман у тексту Преко рода: нова географија идентитета и будућност феминистичке критике, у којем истиче опасност од једностраних проучавања идентитета са становишта гинокритике и гинезе, за чије методе каже да су зашле у слепу улицу средином деведесетих година прошлог века, јер су оријентисане само на полне разлике и род као осу идентитета и тумачење бинарних опозиција задатих конституената. Род се не може узети као један и искључиви чинилац идентитета јунакиње, с обзиром на то да се Сопство непрестано конституише у флуидној интеракцији рода са другим чиниоцима (класом, националном и верском припадношћу, идеолошким опредељењем). Дакле, сасвим у складу са идејама Сузан Стенфорд Фридман, „ово кретање преко категорије рода не значи да ту категорију заборављамо, већ пре да јој се враћамо у новом опростореном смислу“2.
Избор географског дискурса у тумачењу идентитета јунакиње Персеполиса указује се као важан превсаходно зато што наглашава „недостатак чврстог ослонца“ као и „непрестану промену флуидности“3, који и карактеришу услове у којима јунакиња одраста.
У средишту графичке новеле је одрастање и сазревање Марђан, нараторке и јунакиње, обликовање њеног идентитета у геополитички, верски и културолошки различитим појасевима, на Средњем Истоку и у Европи. Структурно посматрано, прве две свеске Персеполиса описују јунакињино одрастање у теократском Ирану за време Исламске револуције и иранско-ирачког рата, до њене четрнаесте године. Трећа, бечка свеска, описује Марђанин живот у „световној и отвореној“ Европи од четрнаесте до осамнаесте године, а последња, четврта, враћа јунакињу измењену у послератни и апсолутистички Иран. У свакој од свезака затичемо јунакињу изглобљену из центра, без чврстог ослонца.
1Марђан Сатрапи, Персеполис 1, Фабрика књига, Београд, 2006, стр. 8.
2Сузан Стенфорд Фридман „Преко рода: нова географија идентитета и будућност феминистичке критике“, стр. 105.
3Сузан Стенфорд Фридман „Преко рода: нова географија идентитета и будућност феминистичке критике“, стр. 106.
DEMOCRACY AND VIOLENCE AGAINST THE NIGERIAN CHILD: IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC MORALITY, LEGAL FRAMEWORK AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Author: Valentine Oyedipe, PhD Candidate
Department of Sociology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
Member of the Carnegie Council for International Affairs Global Ethics Network
The future of any nation lies a great deal in the manner the nation has been able to cater for its children. More significantly, in a democratic regime where government is by consent, accountability and majority rule, coupled with the minority rights being protected. There is no gainsaying the fact that a democratic regime is under obligation to protect effectively the rights of its citizenry. However, the Child Rights Act (CRA) was enacted in 2003 by the National Assembly to protect the rights of the Nigerian Child and other related matters. The Act affirms that the interest of a child should be a paramount concern in all actions and protection and care of the child should be basic rights to ensure his well-being. Contrastingly, the Nigerian child has been subjected to both physical, psychological/emotional violent conditions at varying degrees by the significant and the generalized others; conditions that are antithetical to the actualization of full humanness and civilization of the Nigerian child. These violent conditions include among others poverty, nutritional deficiencies, child battering, child marriage, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), child trafficking, child abandonment, child rape and torture, child soldier etc. Consequently, this paper examines the nature/character and the dimension of violence against the Nigerian child in the nascent democracy and the level of the success made in the implementation of the Child Rights Act with a view to unravel the implications for public morality, legal framework and sustainable development in Nigeria.The paper recommends that the Nigerian child should be treated with dignity and be given opportunities to live and achieve his full humanness.
Key word: child rights, democracy, public morality, sustainable development