Dear readers and members of "Philosophical Views",
My name is Bruno Zuccolo and I work at QED Consulting, a consulting and training company with expertise in the topics of global diversity, ethics and conflict resolution. We have partnered with the Project Management Institute (PMI) to create a survey to explore global responses to ethical issues and dilemmas, and examine the influence of culture as well as gender, age, education, profession, etc., on ethical decision-making. The survey results will illuminate differences in ethical decision-making across diversity dimensions, specifically in the workplace. The findings of this study will be publicly available on PMI's website once the survey is concluded.
I saw Philosophical Views is participating in the Carnegie Council's Global Ethics Day this Wednesday, October 19th. In honor of this event, I wish to invite your members to participate in our study. We want to gather data from all around the world, so I would be immensely grateful if you could share this with other members of your staff and your readers. It will only take about 15 minutes to complete.
To take the survey, please enter the following URL into your browser: https://www.research.net/r/globalethicsresearch
Everyone is welcome to participate, so please feel free to spread it to as many people as possible! I just ask that each person please only take it once.
Thank you for your time and I wish you the best of luck with your Global Ethics Day celebrations!
QED Consulting New York
41 Central Park West, Suite #1G
New York, NY 10023, USA
On behalf of the third annual Global Ethics Day announced by Carnegie Council (#globalethicsday2016) on October 19, 2016.
Author: KAMENSKIY Sergey Ivanovich, M.Sc., a member of the Editorial Board of the "Philosophical Views"
Without establishing the basic international norms of Global Ethics/ Morals the Humanity is doomed. If it manages – by methodical combined efforts – to do it, the Life on the Earth will survive and develop in the future.
Global Ethics/ Morals, Humanity, The Earth, biological genus Homo Sapiens, Applied Philosophy.
El autor: PhM Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena, Instituto de Epistemología, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras. Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Argentina, a member of the Secretariat of the "World Philosophy Network".
La crisis es también una oportunidad para reunirnos en un evento a debatir acerca de una Ética Global y retomar cuestiones griegas para contemplarlas desde una mirada contemporánea. El día mundial de la Ética son todos los días. La crisis como oportunidad incita a filósofos, científicos, instituciones y organizaciones de todo el mundo a explorar la importancia de la Ética en los asuntos privados, nacionales e internacionales. La incorporación del debate Ético en todas las cuestiones es ineludible.
Propongo transformar la crisis en una revolución molecular-ontológica para recuperar el olvido del Ser, para ello es imprescindible tener en cuenta las nociones de la Teoría Cuántica. Las nociones cuánticas nos dan la oportunidad de reconstruir el tejido social volviéndolo más sensible. Necesitamos nuevas ideas para avanzar hacia una sociedad que desarrolle responsabilidad, inteligencia y espiritualidad compartidas. Necesitamos una humanidad que avance hacia un estado de no-egoísmo para elaborar una Ética Colaborativa basada en el compromiso hacia la Vida presente y futura en libertad. La Ética nacida de la consideración de los fundamentos cuánticos nos modifica a nivel genético para que podamos pensar libremente de modo colectivo.
Palabras Claves: Colaboración. Cuántica. Pensamiento colectivo. Responsabilidad compartida.
Author: Professor Edward M. Macierowski (PhD), Departments of Philosophy and Modern Foreign & Classical Languages Benedictine College Atchison, Kansas. AREAS OF SPECIALTY: Metaphysics, History of Philosophy. AREAS OF COMPETENCE: Aristotelian Logic, Philosophy of Nature, Philosophical Psychology, Ethics, Political Philosophy, History of Philosophy (Ancient, Islamic, Medieval, Modern), Greek, Latin, Arabic.
Abstract: The first part extracts the political philosophy implicit in Lincoln's Gettysburg Address; the second does the same for an American governmental policy statement "National Security Study Memorandum 200" which advocates population control measures. This paper provides merely a contrast between the two political philosophies as instances of global ethics problems. A third section, offering an approach diverging from that of NSSM 200 has been omitted for reasons of brevity.
Key Words: Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, Pope Benedict XVI Caritas in Veritate, National Security Memorandum 200, Human Rights, Pope Paul VI, Humanae Vitae, Liberalism, Population Policy, Social Darwinism, Pope John Paul II Centesimus Annus, World Bank, Michel Schooyans, Stephen D. Mumford, Geopolitics, Foreign Relations of the U.S., Buck v. Bell, Eugenics, Leo Strauss, John D. Rockefeller, Sr., Democracy in America, Alexis de Tocqueville, David Rockefeller, U. S. Constitution, Dr. Seuss, Horton Hears a Who, Political Equality, President Richard M. Nixon, President Gerald Ford, Henry Kissenger, President Barack Obama.
REASONING ON AN ECLECTIC APPROACH IN MEDICAL ETHICS: SYNTHESIS OF THE BASIC PRINCIPLES WITH ARISTOTLE’S VIRTUE ETHICS
Author: Gamze Nesipoglu, Researcher and PhD Candidate at Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine Department of History of Medicine and Ethics, Phil, MSc of History of Medicine and Ethics
In this article, it will be reasoned on synthesis and possibility of principlism and medical virtue ethics since the existence of ethical issues faced at the clinics draws attention to the limitations, inadequacy, inapplicability and inconsistency of the four basic principles of (bio)medical ethics, thus it will be sought answers the questions why the principles aren’t sufficient, why the physicians encounter with ethical issues at the clinics, how they have internal and integral morality, professional integrity and moral insight. Although the questions bring to virtue ethics to mind in advance, virtue ethics comes short for medical normativity and metaphysical justification, and people need absolute rules/principles to find their moral way to be against immorality. The situation also seems in the medical world of the 21st century, therefore it will be suggested the combination of phronesis, epistêmê and technê to be compatible with the nature of medicine in all aspects, and to evaluate the patient as a biopsychosocial being, at first. Secondly, since virtue ethics doesn’t exclude the principles and Pellegrino emphasizes the “normative effect of virtue ethics” to be applicable in medicine, it will be suggested the synthesis of the principles and virtue ethics in medicine -like Saunders’ proposal that to reveal a combination of deontology and virtue ethics in general sense- as an eclectic approach. This article was also written to commemorate Aristotle in the 2400th anniversary from his birth with respect.
Keywords: Aristotle, medical ethics, Pellegrino, phronesis, principlism, principles of biomedical ethics, virtue ethics
Author: William Bauser, Professor of Philosophy - Dean College Franklin USA (1990-2006), Member of the Board of Directors - Stop Organ Trafficking NOw Lovettsville, USA
Keywords: Ramus, Method, Persoanlism, Populism, Common Sense, Anti-Realism
The current age of social political discourse has become the rhetoric of the civics ratio to argue qui me horros perfundit their factional populism, personalism and common sense beliefs. The passion of their political rhetoric has exercised the Ramistic tradition of argument with the intent of winning at all costs as the emotional intelligence of what the particular political faction maintains as a mission statement of a similar identity of the imperceptible truth argument that becomes the verbiage of cultural experiences as conflict of personal beliefs rather than as an inquiry into the truth of humanities enrichment and enhancement. These cultural conflicts are not a sciences of the polity but are a
willful desire to either attain national or individual advantage over the freedom of the intellect to pursue the betterment of mankind. This current social political discourse is a typical example of the anti-intellectualism that has continually rewarded the anti reasoning of mankind’s inhumanity to mankind.
The Ramistic method can be said to have been devised as an attempt at a practical reform of the Aristotelian works of logic and rhetoric. As a method of practical attempts at revising rhetoric and logic as a consistent and natural dialogue, Ramus focused upon his anti- Aristotelian and anti-scholastic perspectives of logic as a purpose of constructing and of the inventing of arguments. By pursuing an anti-Aristotelian and anti-scholastic approach to the construction and invention of arguments, Ramus gives us an insight into his thinking regarding the creative nature of logic and rhetoric.
Ramus perceived the classical form and delivery of logic and rhetoric as a system of what today we would call political correctness. By this, he believed that rhetoric was concerned with a myth of language which was not concerned with the practical ornamental and delivery of language expressed by logical statements. For, rhetoric regards the actual usage of language as a purity of speech as a demonstration of the ability of self-mastery.
As such, Ramus praised the dialectic of Plato as a simple and practical usage of an inductive pedagogic as a means of oral weapons of logic that the words of the mixing of the arts do not by maintaining the balance of behavior and continuation of the stability of expectations through the actuality of the forms. Ramus states as his attempt to bring rationalization to the practical training of students, “It was my constant study to remove from the path of the liberal arts the briers and rocks, and all intellectual obstacles and retardations, and to make even and straight the way, in order to arrive more easily not only at intelligence, but the practice and use of the liberal arts.” It was Ramus’ intent to rearrange the content of the scholastic interpretations of Aristotle into a contextual form through the purposes of the principles of nature, system and practice.
For Ramus, the training and textual sources that students are given need be based upon the minimum of theory and the maximum of examples by nature and natural senses. Students are not taught how to teach or connect with others knowledge to improve others as well as oneself but are given means to innovate to get ahead. The examples by nature and by the natural senses are examples that are used as what constitutes content that is based upon the observation of nature. Frank Graves makes this point when he gives as an example that Ramus pursues the material for grammar or language study he desires to have derived from actual usage, the ancient tongues from the classical writers, and the modern from the speech of the people. Similarly, he holds that logic should he based upon observation of the human mind, and natural sciences upon the investigation of nature.
For Ramus, content is what is actual usage of what is given in nature through observation and what is observed in nature is not substance but an artifact of a Platonic non natural idea that generates attitudes of emotions. Every content, art, is an imitation of nature that is a construct or innovated experience that is a demonstration of a homogeneous expression of an artifact of nature. Once each art or content is given or told to one and one has experienced the desired information, one can be said to be in control of the usage of the information and were one’s attitudes are muted one can be said to be logical. Once the information is in control, one can systemize the information for the purpose that it is needed. Yet, before we can systemize the information, we need to understand how the person gathers the information.
For Ramus, similar to today’s method of gathering information through visualization, the person collected actual data by the give and take of the Socratic dialectic that not only gave data of the universe but of thinking itself as spatial artifacts that were experienced by seeing is believing. However, what this method invents is an approach that dismisses any dialogue for the demonstration of a performance of objects or surfaces.
Since a syllogism can not found to be able to demonstrate the truth or validity of the usage of words, there is no need to find a balance between acting or feeling. What does matter is the logical demonstration of what is actually given in nature and to the natural senses as what is practical and proper to living and not to what is of theory or of speculative talk. Humanity actually has to deal with the struggles of demonstrating what one desires and not what is the persons `sophrosyne. Consequently, knowing what one is doing is no more part of logic than Aristotle’s ethics. For Ramus, the person has to do what the person has to do to win an argument at all costs. It lies in the person who is the all knowing, all powerful and all goodness of what constitutes reality as anti-realist emotion, perspective or projections of truth and validity.
Since for Ramus, it is the person’s experiences, dignity and status that matters, the systematic approach to these experiences, dignity and status becomes arranged around the universality, homogeneity and primacy `of the deductive rule of were the general should precede the particular. For the person, he or she needs to get smart with what is actually happening in the world and as an event and get with the truth of the populism of the actual world and not some theoretical world. One has to do what one has to do to get ahead at all costs. Since this is not about some theoretical perspective of reality but about what one feels, projects or prescribes about reality that matters, universality is maintaining the truth of the populism of the actual world beliefs. This includes being apocalyptic in nature through the argumentum ad populum .
For example, since the idea that mankind is by chosen fact bias individual , The popular arguments of race, gender, sex, creed and love are universal truths. Any commands of conduct or actions need be relevant to the subject of conversation and to each other to for there to be homogeneity. The only thing that matters is the universal truth and any discourse that talks of substance
or in a critical fashion Is considered as a threat to the universal truth. As long as one can innovate with what is the universal truth one is speaking the universal truth, but once one is critical or creative to alternative truths, one should be denied access to reality. For as much as Ramus was about reform of the liberal arts, he has generated not only an anti-Aristotle but an anti- intellectualism.
Even though Ramus was concerned with the reform of how students learned and applied their material, his humanist algorithm patterns of method were devised to counter the scholastic interpretations of Aristotle’s logic, dialectic and rhetoric. As a humanist reformer, he was concerned with the idea of self-mastery as a Platonic idea of emotional self control of one’s passions. In a pedagogy method of the practicality of the mind and of nature, one can see what Ramus was thinking that the concept of logic consisted in the Timaeus of Plato. Plato tells us regarding the practicality of the mind and of nature that “God invented and gave us sight to the end that we might behold the courses of intelligence in the heaven, and apply them to the courses of our own intelligence which are akin to them, the unperturbed to the perturbed ; and that we, learning them and partaking of the natural truth of reason, might imitate the absolutely unerring courses of God and regulate our own vagaries.”
As such, what was taught was the students ability to argue his position by using what he practically understood as the natural truth of his homogeneous artful experience. And, since there was no syllogism to demonstrate the validity of the artful experience, there
was no connection between the artful experiences except what was germane to he success of an argument based upon the persons own intelligence, capability and self-worth.
Similar today’s social media oral tradition, Ramus’ liberal arts reform was not based upon an inclusive and connection of mankind’s experiences but was based upon a desire to do what has to do to succeed in life without demonstrating any substantive connection between mankind’s experiences but by using what one can use to get one’s way at all costs to the sustainability of mankind through the use of personalistic, populism and common sense beliefs.
Bowne, BP, 1908, Personalism. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co
Cooper, JM, 2012, Pursuits of Wisdom: Six Ways of Life in Ancient Philosophy. NJ: Princeton University Press
Duhamel, PA, The Logic and Rhetoric of Peter Ramus. Modern Philology, v46, #3, (Feb.1949) The University of Chicago Press
Graves, FP, 2011, Peter Ramus and the Educational Reformation of the Sixteenth Century. Fl: Puritan Publishers
Hamilton, D, 2003, instruction in the making: Peter Ramus and the beginnings of modern schooling. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago 21-25, April 2003
Ong, WJ, 1958, Ramus, method, and the Decay of Dialogue, MA: Harvard University
Pufendorf, vonSF, 2003, The Whole Duty of Man, according to the natural law of Nature. B.Toole (trans.) I. Hunter and D. Saunders (eds.), IN: Liberty Fund
Ramus, P. From Arguments in Rhetoric against Quintilan
Read,SN, and Wilson, EA, 2011, Ramus, Pedagogy and the Liberal Arts. VT: Ashgate Publishing Co.
William W. Bauser is currently a Delegate for the United States and a member of the editorial board for the e-magazine Philosophical Views. I have experience as a developer of an ethical infrastructure and as an ethical consultant in various national and international environments. Breadth of experience encompasses: Financial cost and cost benefit analysis, operational needs’ assessment, teaching and research in curriculum, organizational and human development, mentoring, academic and community leadership and long term strategic planning. Demonstrated record of being a critical and innovative problem solver, manager and visionary, assessor of development, evaluative and research programs, and trainer of diverse populations through the use of cognitive, affective and psychomotor methods. Adept at analyzing diverse viewpoints to build a consensus regarding a contextual situation. I also have experience in board, leadership, governance, organization, evaluation innovation training and development and community interaction. I have also demonstrated a philosophical methodology that has been used for curriculum development and curriculum design. I have taught courses that have brought forth theology, professional ethics, of the Ancient, modern and contemporary perspectives in faculty development, committee work through texts and social media.
‘Shame on me. A study of the notion of ‘shame’ in Greek epic within theframe of an ethic of alterity.’
Author: Bárbara Álvarez Rodríguez, PhD. in Philosophy, ‘Clarin- COFUND’ postdoctoral researcher in the Classics Department at Stanford University, specializing in Homeric poetry and alterity studies.
In this work, I make use of the ethic of alterity developed by the Lithuanian Philosopher E. Levinas, and followed by the Spanish Philosopher G. Bello. According to Levinas, the relationships with the Other should be based on the responsibility of the ‘I’ with the ‘Other’ and not in the domination (the ‘I’ over the ‘Other’). Within the frame of an ethic or philosophy of alterity and with Levinas and Bello as a starting point, I study different scenes of both the Iliad and the Odyssey in which shame, responsibility and acknowledgment appear governing the relationships with the ‘contemporaneous others,’ those with whom the heroes share time and community –understanding it in a narrow sense as small-scale local group or in a broader sense as the whole group of Achaeans. I will integrate such new insights into Homeric poetry with the work of E. R. Dodds, who was the first to show that the society depicted in Homeric poems could be understood as a ‘shame-culture,’ as opposed to a later ‘guilt-culture.’ That the feeling of shame explicitly involves the Other will be analyzed in this paper through several prime examples (i.e. Il. 5.529-532, Il. 5.887, Il. 15.657-658, Il. 15.661-662, Od. 20.169-171, Od. 20.343- 344, Od. 21.323). In addition to the observations by Dodds, I utilize the work of E. Benveniste, who has noted that every moral term in Homeric epic has, in fact, a social role; and also that of W. Jaeger (1986), regarding the position of Homeric man and his awareness of value only through recognition of the society to which he belongs.
Through an interdisciplinary framework, I study Greek antiquity in order to combine contemporary alterity studies with literary analysis. I argue that Western society has been structured in a ethnocentric, androcentric and hierarchical way since its beginning.
Thus, my objective is to suggest, through the lens of the philosophy of alterity, how we might reach a more ethical consideration of the Other in the study of classic literature.
Key words: Ethic of Alterity, Shame, Responsibility, Homeric epic, Ancient Greece.
This work has been done thanks to the funding of ‘Clarin-COFUND’ postdoctoral fellowships, Principally of Asturias (Spain)
"Philosophical Views" as a part of the official celebration
Authors: Olivera Z. Mijuskovic & carnegiecouncil.org
Special thanks to Mr. Alex Woodson
Carnegie Council announces its third annual Global Ethics Day (#globalethicsday2016) on October 19, 2016.
Inspired by Earth Day, Global Ethics Day provides an opportunity for organizations around the world to hold events exploring the meaning of ethics in international affairs.
We encourage academic institutions everywhere to use this day to hold programs focusing on ethics, such as lectures, film screenings, debates, or panel discussions.
Our magazine and the "World Philosophy Network" are the part of the official celebration.
We call all scholars in the field of social sciences to send us papers on the subjects of ethics. The primary will be ancient Greek philosophy, but all directions of philosophy, including bioethics and international relations are welcome.
Each paper should have an abstract, specific words, original critical review, bibliographical and biographical information. The text shouldn`t be longer than 3000 words. The language is English.
Deadline for sending texts is October 1st on email:
Sixty-eight institutions worldwide participated last year. To see the list, click here.
Participating Institutions and Organizations include:
Bard Globalization and International Affairs Program
Boise State University
Center for Business Ethics & Compliance, International University in Moscow (Russia)
Center for Innovative Ideas Execution and Training-CIIET (India)
Central Michigan University | Department of Art and Design
College of Southern Idaho
The Center for International Ethics at CMU - Central Michigan University
Deree - The American College of Greece
International Day of Action Against Contract Cheating
Managing Values (Australia)
Mykolas Romeris University (Lithuania)
Philosophical Views magazine (Serbia)
Rutgers Division of Global Affairs
Saint Peter's University
Swansea Univesity (UK)
UK Values Alliance
United Nations Assocation of New York
United States Military Academy
University of Buraimi (Oman)
University of Oklahoma
Women Economic Forum 2017 - All Ladies League
World Philosophy Network